Como defender-se dos vírus de computador: o que você precisa saber

Embora os computadores sejam um recurso continuamente presente na vida moderna, muitas pessoas ainda não perceberam o enorme risco proveniente da constante interação com a tecnologia.

Os vírus de computador são uma das formas mais antigas de malware; são softwares maliciosos criados para causar danos. Mas sua capacidade de impedir a detecção e se replicar significa que esses programas sempre serão motivo de preocupação. Entender o que um vírus é capaz de fazer com seu computador é o primeiro passo para proteger seu sistema e sua família contra ataques.

O potencial de um vírus de computador

A única característica real para um software ser considerado vírus é que o programa tem a capacidade de se replicar em outras máquinas. Isso significa que nem todos os vírus representam uma ameaça direta ao seu computador. Porém, muitas vezes, até mesmo vírus inativos podem permitir que ladrões virtuais e hackers instalem programas mais prejudiciais, como worms e cavalos de Troia.

Independentemente do objetivo do vírus de computador, o programa usa alguns recursos do sistema enquanto é executado. Assim, seu sistema fica mais lento e poderá até parar abruptamente, se o vírus exigir muitos recursos ou se houver muitos vírus sendo executados ao mesmo tempo.

Mais frequentemente, os vírus de computador têm algum tipo de objetivo malicioso, gravado no próprio vírus ou em outro elemento de malware instalado pelo vírus. Esse software pode executar várias ações prejudiciais, como abrir um “backdoor” do computador, por meio do qual os hackers podem tomar o controle do sistema ou roubar informações pessoais confidenciais, como credenciais de bancos online ou números de cartão de crédito. Ele pode também direcionar seu navegador da Web para sites indesejados, muitas vezes pornográficos, ou até mesmo bloquear o computador e pedir um resgate para desbloqueá-lo. Nos casos mais graves, os vírus podem corromper arquivos importantes do computador, inutilizando o sistema.

Como ser um usuário de computador informado

Portanto, sabendo de todos os danos que um vírus pode causar, você deve estar se perguntando como pode proteger a si mesmo e sua família contra essas ameaças. O primeiro passo é o mais óbvio: basta usar seu computador de forma inteligente.

Verifique se todos os seus programas têm a versão mais recente do software antivírus instalada. Isso é especialmente importante em relação ao seu sistema operacional, software de segurança e navegador da Web, mas também se aplica a qualquer programa que você utiliza com frequência. Frequentemente os vírus se aproveitam de bugs ou exploits no código desses programas para se propagar em máquinas novas e, embora geralmente as empresas que criam esses programas sejam rápidas para corrigir as falhas, essas correções funcionam somente se tiverem sido baixadas no seu computador.

Também é importante evitar medidas que possam comprometer seu computador. Isso inclui abrir anexos de email não solicitados, visitar sites desconhecidos ou baixar software de sites não confiáveis ou de redes de transferência de arquivos ponto a ponto. Para garantir que toda a família entenda os riscos, esses procedimentos devem ser ensinados a todos, e o uso da Internet pelas crianças deve ser monitorado para assegurar que não acessem sites suspeitos ou baixem programas ou arquivos aleatórios.

Como instalar software de prevenção e detecção de vírus

A próxima etapa importante para proteger seu computador e sua família é instalar um software de segurança de computadores confiável, que possa verificar seu sistema ativamente e oferecer proteção contra vírus. Entretanto, saiba que nem todas as soluções de segurança são iguais.

Existem diversos softwares antivírus gratuitos na Internet, mas muitos deles não são suficientemente robustos para oferecer proteção completa, nem são atualizados com a frequência adequada para serem úteis. É assustador, mas alguns desses softwares gratuitos não fazem nada. Em vez disso, instalam vírus, adware, spyware ou cavalos de Troia quando você tenta baixar e instalar o programa.

Se o preço for um fator importante, a melhor opção é encontrar uma solução de segurança de Internet com preços competitivos e que ofereça uma avaliação gratuita, para que você possa ver como o software funciona e como seu computador responde depois de ser limpo, antes de tomar a decisão de compra.

A parte mais difícil de tudo isso é que, embora muitas ameaças sejam neutralizadas todos os dias, muitas outras são criadas em seu lugar. Isso significa que, enquanto houver Internet, os vírus de computador continuarão a ser um problema. Ignorar esses problemas ou achar que eles não o afetarão é uma maneira certa de comprometer seu computador e colocar as informações de sua família ou sua tranquilidade em risco.

 

Fonte: Site Kaspersky

3.582 comentários em “Como defender-se dos vírus de computador: o que você precisa saber”

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