O que é e como funciona um PABX

PABX (Private Automatic Branch eXchange) é um equipamento onde são ligadas as linhas telefônicas da empresa e distribuídas para vários ramais. Possibilitando que todos os ramais façam ligações externas simultaneamente, através das linhas telefônicas ligadas ao PABX. Além de realizar ligações gratuitas entre os ramais internos.

Um PABX permite efetuar ligações entre telefones internos sem intervenção manual, ou ainda telefonar e receber telefonemas da rede externa (geralmente pública). Podem consistir de uma plataforma de hardware ou somente software, este último que pode ser instalado no computador para a interação com a telefonia via Internet. Um telefone doméstico geralmente está conectado diretamente à operadora local de telefonia, podendo realizar chamadas discando o número de destino desejado. Em um ambiente corporativo normalmente existem muito mais ramais do que linhas telefônicas, principalmente devido ao custo, havendo a necessidade de um ponto central para gerenciar e distribuir as chamadas, o que é feito pelo PABX.

O equipamento torna-se também um elemento de controle dos usuários de ramais, podendo gerenciar permissões de uso individuais ou por grupo. Geralmente são instalados nas empresas que, por sinal ja estão autossuficientes e necessitam de uma rede instalada apenas internamente (daí o “private” no nome), que permite conexões de chamadas feitas pelos usuários (por isto “automático”, em oposição a um operador manual) entre as extensões e as operadoras externas (geralmente públicas).

Sua função é ligar uma série de telefones a uma “linha externa”. Por exemplo, seu telefone em casa está conectado diretamente a sua operadora local de telefonia, e você pode fazer uma discagem simplesmente pegando o aparelho e discando para o número desejado. Em um ambiente corporativo, geralmente é preciso ter vários telefones, mas há apenas algumas poucas linhas (e elas custam dinheiro). Também, há a necessidade de um ponto central para atender as chamadas.

O PABX permite que, ao fazer uma chamada, seja selecionada uma das limitadas linhas,e discar para um número externo. O usuário também pode chamar outro telefone conectado ao PABX.

Fonte: Satturno

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